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Last Updated: 16-Dec-2021

How Does the Web Browser Work? Step by Step Guides

Internet browsers are very important as a gateway to the World Wide Web. They have become universal in our daily routine, and since they are the gateway to the Internet, it is difficult to spend a day without a browser. This article will help you know about How the Browser Works and its features and popular web browsers around the world.

What is a Web Browser?

Web browser

Internet Browser, also called Web Browser, is actually a programming app that gives everyone access to the World Wide Web. Its primary function is to search, retrieve and display data on the Internet as well as documents, photos, videos, web pages, and other files.

On the other hand, it will also be called a rendering engine whose function is to download the web page and render it in an understandable way that people can understand. Web pages are created on HTML, which requires to be presented in the layout displayed in the user interface.

Web browser

Today, virtually all Internet network gadgets come with Internet browser applications, including cell phones and PCs. Currently, browsers offer additional highlights as well, for example, applications, extensions, plugins, and from there, the sky range. Chrome, for example, offers to work with devices such as password managers, password checkups, anti-phishing, and that's just the beginning.

How Does a Web Browser Work?

How web browser work

Before analyzing the functioning of the web browser, let's take a brief look at the elements of the Browser that play an important role in its functioning. Post it; we will see the work of the web browser step by step.

Components of a Web Browser

Components of web browser

Every internet browser has two components: the front and back end. The component that looks very fair and simple, is the front end; this is the interface with which we interact. But it has a complex backend that simplifies the basic tasks of the Browser. Below are some key browser components:

1. User Interface

The interface is where you interact with the Browser. This includes the address bar, on-screen controls such as Home, Back, Forward, and Refresh, then the section where the web page appears, the Bookmarks button, and all other options on the browser screen.

2. Browser Engine

The Browser provides a connection between the user interface and the rendering engine. It monitors and controls the rendering engine according to the input of the user interface.

3. Rendering Engine

Rendering Engine presents the requested web page on the browser screen. A web page is a document that is typically written in HTML - the rendering engine changes that document and data into an intelligible format so that users can view the desired site, image, or video.

Rendering Engine deals with HTML and XML documents and other files to prepare the layout displayed in the user interface. It can also work with another kind of data with the help of certain plugins and extensions. Rendering Engine used by major Internet browsers are:

  • Blink : - Microsoft Edge (previously as Edge HTML), Opera, and Chrome.
  • WebKit- Used in Safari.
  • Gecko– Mozilla Firefox.
  • Trident – Internet Explorer.
  • Presto – Legacy rendering engine for Opera.

4. Networking

The component of networking is related to Internet communication and security. It recovers URLs utilizing normal Internet protocols like HTML and FTP.

5. JavaScript Interpreter

As the name infers, the JavaScript translator deciphers and executes the JavaScript code inserted in the site. The outcomes are then shipped off the rendering engine for show.

6. UI Backend

UI backend essential gadgets such as a select box, an information box, a window actually help to take a look at the box. So, it uses the basic operating system user interface technique for equivalence.

7. Data Storage

It is a uniform layer that the Browser uses to store every one of its information, including FileSystem, WebSQL, Cookies, Local Storage, IndexedDB, and Session Storage.

Step-by-Step Working of Browser

Wherever you click on a link or enter a URL, the Browser sends and receives data or information to different parts of the web. The data it receives is rendered through the rendering engine and is efficiently converted to a suitable setting. After that, it appears in the user interface.

It involves a step-by-step process that consists of many steps. These include DNS resolution, HTTP exchange between Browser and web server, rendering, etc. and so on, such as:

Credits: HackerNoon

  • The first step is to enter a link in the web browser.
  • The Browser searches for the domain's IP address using DNS for the domain.
  • The Browser generates a link with the server.
  • In the fourth step, the web server receives an HTTP request from it.
  • Next, the server deals with this request and sends out an HTTP response.
  • In the last step, the Browser renders and displays HTML data, i.e., web pages.

Common Terms Around Browsers

The following are frequently used words you may have read above or seen while reading about the Internet, web, or browsers.

  • URL - stands for Universal Resource Locator, which is the address of a specific resource on the web.
  • HTML - HTML is an abbreviation for Hypertext Markup Language, used to create web pages and applications.
  • HTTP - HTTP is a protocol that permits the recovery of resources, for example, HTML documents. This is a customer server protocol, which means your Internet browser launches applications.
  • IP Address - Indicates the area of a particular server that is linked to the Internet. Each site has its own specific IP address and can have multiple IP addresses when facilitated in different areas. For example, the general IP address for Facebook is
  • DNS - The acronym for the domain name system is DNS. This is a database that consists of records of domains. It helps to find sites that have understandable addresses for humans.
  • Cookies – Cookies are small pieces of information that are placed on your gadget's storage.

List of Popular Web Browsers

1. Chrome by Google

Google Chrome is currently the most popular internet browser in the world, which accounts for more than 64% of the world's market share. It was introduced in 2008 for the first time. The Browser uses Google's Blink rendering engine. Here's an add-on to Google Chrome and its history of 12-year.

2. Firefox by Mozilla

Firefox is a free version of Mozilla and is an open-source web browser. It was first introduced in the market in 2002. Firefox makes a use of the Gecko Layout Engine in order to render web pages. According to StatCounter, it currently has more than 3% market share of the global Browser.

3. Edge by Microsoft

Microsoft Edge was first introduced in 2015 to replace Internet Explorer with Windows 10 as the default browser. Since then, it has been made accessible for Android, iOS, and Mac OS.

It used the first Edge HTML rendering engine. As it may be, in 2019, Microsoft performed a new chromium-based Edge, the Blink, using a Chrome-like rendering engine. It still has a small market share of less than 3% worldwide.

4. Opera

opera is a multi-stage internet browser built using Opera software, introduced in 1995. It is one of the most established internet browsers in search. First, it had its own restricted Presto design engine. As might be, in 2013, Opera switched to Chromium.

It was bought by Golden Brick Capital in 2016 by a Chinese consortium led.

5. Safari by Apple

Safari is another popular browser for Apple products. It first appeared for Mac OS X in 2003. but the mobile version was introduced in the market in 2007 with the iPhone OS 1. There was also a Windows version available from 2007 to 2012.

Google is Safari's default search engine, and it uses the WebKit rendering engine. Today, Safari owns a large share of the global market share, which is more than 18%.

In addition to the above references, we also have some other well-known internet browsers, which are listed below:

  • Brave Browser
  • Samsung Internet
  • UC Browser, etc.
  • Vivaldi Browser


Everything revolves around what an internet browser is and how an internet browser works. We've recorded parts of the program, how they work, and a list of the most popular Internet browsers around the world. Overall, which program do you use on your computer or cell phone? How is your involvement in this? Tell me in the remarks beneath.

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